Thursday, May 22, 2008

Al-Zahrawi – the Father of Surgery

At the golden era of medieval, Moslem civilization invested a fame surgeon master into history, whose had significantly contributed to the medical surgery achievement. He had invented methods and procedures of modern surgery, and also invented a lot of surgery tools and technology. No wonder that he was wellknown as The Father of Surgery. in bahasa ]

The inventor of the modern surgeon Al-Zahrawi was born in 936 M. The west world known him as Abulcasis. He was known as a fenomenal surgeon of the time. His works and thoughts had adopted a lot to the west medical. “His modern surgeon principles once was standard sylabus of the universities in Europe,” wrote Dr. Campbell in History of Arab Medicine.

The noble surgeon original name was Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi. He was born in 936 A.D. in Zahra, small city located 9,6 km suburb of Cordoba, Spain. Al-Zahrawi was an Arabic descendant of Ansar tribe resided in Spain. It was in Cordoba he had schooled and then gave his medical lectures, gave his public health services, and develop surgeon technology to his death.

There is so little about his youth history was revealed. In case, his hometown Al-Zahra had burned out over the wars. The history of Al-Zahrawi then written-up when Andalusia’s scientist Abu Muhammad ibn Hazm (993M-1064 A.D) enlisted him as one of a noble surgeon master of Spain in Al-Humaydi’s Jadhwat al Muqtabis a book written six decades after his death.

Al-Zahrawi dedicated some fifty years of his life to surgeon and medical teaching. His noble was brought him to the royal services of kingdom in the era of Al-Hakam II khalif of Andalus. He had not traveled a lot just like other moslem scholars of the time. His concern and focus dedication was on accident and war victims.

His colleagues confessed his genius on surgery, his ventures on medical and surgeon was so immense, his ‘treasures’ of invaluable medical bible Al-Tasrif li man ajaz an-il-talil—was an encyclopedia of medical science since then. His 30 volume books then became a standard syllabus to Europe medical school of the time.

It was the book in which he’d been in detail descripted on surgeon, orthopedic, opththalmology, farmakology, and standard medical chapters. It was also descripting about cosmetics, and more chapters include deodorant, hand lotion, hair care and hair coloring which then derivated to our modern day cosmetic products.

His day of popularity were radiant over Europe, patients and students from all parts of Europe came to him for treatment and advice. Will Durant wrote, at the time, Cordoba was a favourite for Europeans for surgery. There was more than 50 hospitals giving prime services in Cordoba.

He was a lecturer who love his students. It was then revealed in Al-Tasrif, how he care about his students queries. Al-Zahrawi ever reminded his students about necessity on building good relationships with the patients. He also reminding that a doctor should dedicated to any patients at best no matter what the social status they have.

To give their services, it is important a doctor gave a closed observation to their patients, especially on personal cases. To give such services, for sake of diagnose accuracy and possible services of the best. To hold on doctor ethics, is not to make money by doing a doctor.

The surgeon is not an all men profession. Al-Zahrawi ever remind all people not to do surgery with non-recommended paramedics or doctors. Only certified doctors were recommended to provide surgery. It was then we knew the urgency of specialist surgery doctors (surgeon) for our modern world.

“Undoubtably, Al-Zahrawi is the master of surgeon. the Father Of Surgery” said Pietro Argallata. The book of Al-Tasrif he had written were translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in 12 A.D., the book which delicated with illustrations, and had been the resources of medical school syllabus and doctor or surgeon references of Europe for five centuries of the medieval.

Zahrawi’s profile and principles was so fascinated among colleages and surgeon students of Europe. In the century of 14 A.D., a French surgeon namely Guy de Chauliac had compiled Al-Tasrif mostly in 200 references of his journals. Since then Al-Tasrif was a medical handbook of European surgeon society which had delivered a Renaissance era to the West on the later day. History written until sixteenth century whereas a French surgeon, Jaques Delechamps (1513 -1588 A.D.) made Al-Tasrif a reference source.

Al-Zahrawi widely known in Europe as al-Qassim or Abulcasis was passed a way in Cordoba in 1013 A.D.—just two years after the hometown invaded and destroyed by the Crusaders. Cordoba was no longer a Moslem state today, though his name had carved to be a street name of ‘Calle Albucasis’ boulevard in Spain. There is a house of number 6 was used to be Abulcasis once stayed. The house which was a historical record of the world surgeon history stamped in Spain.

The Inventor of modern surgeon science.
During fifty years dedicated his life to develop medical science, specifically in surgeon, Abulcasis invented tens of surgery modern tools. It was in Al-Tasrif medical bible, ‘the master’ created and introduced more than 200 collection set of his surgeon tools, were never been in use by predecessors medical masters.

It was recorded, during his career Abulcasis had invented at least 26 original surgery tools, they are catgut (to sew internal body organic) which is still in use in our modern surgeon today; forceps (used to lift the dead embryo. Illustrations were given in the medical bible of Al-tasrif, he was also introduced how to use ligature (the wound sewing string) to fix artery veinal bleed, surgeon needles and more medical and surgery inventions, including scalpel (surgeon knives), curette, retractor, surgical spoon, surgical hook, surgical rod, and specula. Abulcasis were also invented tools to work on uretra, on throat, on ears, etc. His contributions on medical and surgeon inventions were recorded in history.
[The Biography Institute]


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